Periodic Table -> Titanium

Titanium


Titanium Details

Titanium Symbol: Ti

Titanium Atomic Number: 22

Titanium Atomic Weight: 47.90

What is Titanium?

Titanium (atomic number 22, symbol Ti) is a transition metal and element from the Periodic Table that was discovered in 1791 by the British mineralogist and clergyman William Gregor who studied Cornish minerals.

Properties
Titanium has a silvery-white metallic color, very high strength-to-density ratio, and good corrosion resistance. It is alloyed with different elements, including molybdenum, vanadium, aluminum, iron, and others. At high temperatures, the element reacts with sulfur, silicon, boron, carbon, nitrogen, and other nonmetals. Compounds such as borides, carbide, and nitride have good refractory properties and are hard and stable. There are several oxidation states, including 2+ and 3+ but 4+ is the most common. The element dissolves in concentrated acids and forms a number of compounds, including halides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides, oxides, and others. Titanium dioxide occurs in 3 polymorphs, rutile, brookite, and anatase. Five stable isotopes have been identified Ti-48, Ti-50, Ti-49, Ti-47, and Ti-46. The half life of the most stable radioisotope, Ti-44 is 63 years. The melting point is 3020 F (1660 C) and the boiling point is 5948 F (3287 C).

Occurrence
This is an abundant element which is widely present in minerals and rocks, including titanite, rutile, perovskite, ilmenite, and brookite as well as sediments and different igneous rocks. The main mineral deposits are found in Australia, South Africa, Canada, Ukraine, New Zealand, China, and other countries. Canada, South Africa, and Australia are the main producers. The major deposits of rutile are found in South Africa and North America.

Applications
This element has different
architectural, medical, and commercial applications and is used for its autocleaning capacity and good coating power. It is added to coatings, additives, and paints and is used in plastics, toothpastes, and paper. Titanium also has many applications in medicine and is used to make cranial plates, screws, bone-plates, pace-makers, and knee and hip replacements. It is also used in the marine and aerospace industries due to its crack, fatigue, and corrosion resistance. Fire walls, structural components, hydraulic systems, exhaust ducts, and landing gear are manufactured by using alloys of titanium with vanadium, nickel, zirconium, and aluminum. Titanium dioxide is added to lacquers and enamels. The element is also used in missiles, spacecraft, naval ships, and aircraft. It has industrial applications as well and is used in wave soldering and ultrasonic welding. Finally, titanium is also used to manufacture sporting equipment such as bicycle components, lacrosse and hockey helmet grills, golf clubs, and tennis rackets. One of its compounds, titanium tetrachloride is used as a catalyst, to make smoke screens, and for skywriting.

Health Effects
While titanium is abundant, it has no known biological role. This is not a poisonous or toxic element and is not absorbed by the body. Long-term exposure through eye and skin contact and breathing may cause irritation, difficulty breathing, coughing, and chest pain. The element poses no environmental hazard because of its low toxicity. However, explosions can occur when titanium powder is heated, making it a fire hazard.



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