Periodic Table -> Roentgenium
Roentgenium DetailsRoentgenium Symbol:
RgRoentgenium Atomic Number:
111Roentgenium Atomic Weight:
(280.16)What is Roentgenium?
(atomic number 111, symbol Rg) is a chemical element named after Noble Prize winner Wilhelm Roentgen who was the first to produce X-rays electromagnetic radiation.
Isotopes and Predicted Properties
Little is known about Roentgenium, but it is predicted that its properties resemble that of other noble metals. The group of noble metals includes elements such as gold, ruthenium, platinum, iridium, silver, and others. Some researchers predict that the element's properties are similar to that of gold. Gold is a noble metal with a purple, yellow, ruby, or black color and is ductile and malleable. It forms acids and chlorides and has good electrical and thermal conductivity. Roentgenium would be orange metallic or yellow in color and has an atomic weight of 281. The element is probably a transition metal and belongs to period 7 elements. Its electron configuration, ionization energies, and crystal structure are unknown. The boiling and melting points and the covalent radius are also unknown. The element is predicted to have a body-centered cubic structure and density of 28.7 grams per cubic centimeter. It should have four oxidation states, -1, 1, 3, and 5. Rg is expected to be solid at room temperature. It is a d-block element like bohrium, niobium, manganese, chromium, and vanadium. Rb has 111 protons which makes it a heavy element. The shortest-lived isotope is Rg-279 with a half life of 0.17 seconds, and the longest-lived is Rg-281 with a half life of 26 seconds. Rg-281 decays to meitnerium-276. The mass numbers of its isotopes range from 272 to 282. The elementís magnetic ordering, shear modulus, specific heat, poisson ratio, and electronegativity are unknown. Its lattice structure and thermal conductivity have not been studied. Roentgenium is a transuranium element which decays radioactively. Other such elements are curium, americium, plutonium, nobelium, and fermium. Such elements are produced in small amounts, with few exceptions. Elements with an atomic number higher than 110, Roentgenium in this number, are classified as super heavy. They are usually created through nuclear fission, and a particle accelerator is used.
Discovery and Naming
The element was first detected by a research team at the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in 1994. The team led by Gottfred Munzenberg and Peter Armbruster bombarded Ni-64 nuclei with Bi-209 and isolated a single atom of Rg-272. A heavy ion or linear accelerator was used to target bismuth-209. Only small amounts of Rg have been produced and observed to date. It was in 2003 when the Joint Working Party confirmed the discovery of element 111. The element was named the following year, and the name was confirmed by IUPAC.
Role and Uses
Given that Roentgenium is a synthetic element, it is not found free in nature. It has no biological role or commercial applications and is of research interest only. The element has an extremely short half life to be considered an environmental or health hazard. In large concentrations, Rg would be harmful and toxic because of its radioactivity.
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